September 13, 2021) Dr Jim McClure, noted theologian, shares…

‘Fellowship’ is a word that Christians often use. It is one of the great New Testament words but is has been used so much to describe such a variety of ‘church meetings’ that it has become devalued. 

What is ‘fellowship?’  Is it just a term given to differentiate Christian groups from non-Christian groups – Men’s Fellowship, Women’s Fellowship, Youth Fellowship and so on? 

Or, does the New Testament use the word in a different way? That is what we are going to explore.

The Greek words κοινωνία and κοινωνέω
In the KJV the Greek noun κοινωνία (koinonia) has been translated by the words…

  • Fellowship (12 times),
  • Communion (4 times),
  • Communication (once),
  • Contribution (once), and
  • Distribution (once).

The verb κοινωνέω, ‘to share’, has been translated to partaker of, communicate and distribute. It is clear that it is a much more significant word than is suggested by the way we frequently use it.

Before it became a New Testament word, it was used in secular Classical Greek generally as a business word to indicate, for example, partnership in a business. 

It was also used in the Greek version of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, to translate the Hebrew word חבר (chaber), which means to bind or join together in any context.

For example, the Greek word is used in the Exodus 26:6 to describe the fastening together of curtains, in Ecclesiasts 4:10 it refers to companions, and in Psalm 119:63 it is used for those who are one in worshipping God. Interestingly it is never used in the Old Testament to describe a relationship between man and God, clearly because the holiness and transcendence of God was being preserved.

Let us now consider the New Testament’s use of the word. The first Christians, put a fresh emphasis on it to describe various aspects of the Christian life.  The basic concept that lies at the core if the word is ‘sharing.’ 

1. Sharing of friendship
The New Testament uses the wordkoinonia in reference to the sharing of friendship among Christians. The common factor of such friendship is our friendship with God. ‘… that you also may have fellowship (koinonia) with us. And our fellowship (koinonia) is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ’ (1John 1:4). 

Friendship is a human necessity and there are many whose lives have not been able to develop because they have lacked this basic need. In the church no one should experience aloneness, for friendship should central to the church’s life.

Our bonding with Jesus Christ inevitably needs to be expressed in friendship with others – and not just within the little circle of those whom we like best!  In truth, friendship is often sadly lacking in the church today and needs to be acted upon more committedly today.  How important it is, therefore, that we discover afresh the challenge of koinonia.

2. Sharing of practical things
There is a flow on from the ‘friendship’ concept of koinonia. If it is genuine, it will be expressed in practical ways.  Koinonia is not just about ‘talking the talk’ but about ‘walking the walk’!  It is not just about having friendly feelings about those in our Christian family – it is also about doing practical things for them as an expression of our friendship. It involves sharing with them in a concrete way.

Ten out of forty-five references to the word in the New Testament clearly refer to this aspect of the sharing of material things. 

Paul, for example, used the word three times when he wrote about the financial gift Gentile Christians had given him for the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem who were experiencing hardship… 
(i) ‘For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a contribution (koinonia) for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem’ (Romans 15:26).
(ii) ‘… they urgently pleaded with us for the privilege of sharing (κοινωνία ) in this service to the saints’ (2 Corinthians 8:4).
(iii) ‘… your generosity in sharing (koinonia) with them and with everyone else’ (2 Corinthians 9:13).   

So the word has been expressed in these three ways – contribution, privilege of sharing, and sharing.  In Hebrews 13:16 we also read, ‘And do not forget to do good and to share [KJV ‘communicate’] (koinonia) with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased.’

That spirit of practical friendship is seen in Acts 2:44-45 where the Christians in the early church shared their belongings with each other and although the word koinonia is not used in this passage, the principle behind it is clearly seen.

The Good News Bible catches the spirit of the act: ‘All the believers continued together in close fellowship and shared their belongings with one another’ (Act 2: 44).

3. Sharing with and supporting each other in Christian work
In Philippians 1:5 Paul writes lovingly of that church for their ‘… partnership (koinonia) in the gospel from the first day until now.’

This was a church which shared in Paul’s ministry through their loving encouragement and support.  Their koinonia therefore, was truly a ‘partnership,’ a joint venture with Paul, in bringing the gospel to the world. 

Though they were not able to do what Paul was doing, by their support they enabled Paul to fulfill his ministry and he elsewhere refers to this church as an example for others.

4. Sharing in the life of faith
Although our faith is personal, it is not private. The New Testament knows nothing of individual Christianity.  The word ‘fellowship’ in fact indicates that fact, because one cannot have fellowship with oneself! Fellowship requires more than one! 

The New Testament lets us see that when we become Christians, we become part of a group of people, a body, where all the parts are indivisibly joined. ‘We, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another’ (Romans 12:5). 

Also in Hebrews 10:24 we read, ‘… and let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works.’ The need for koinonia is expressed in Galatians 2: 9 where the apostles, who at first were suspicious of Paul’s motives in becoming a Christian, now accepted him as a brother in the Lord and brought him into relationship with them. ‘James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship (koinonia) when they recognised the grace given to me.’

5. Sharing in the things of the Holy SpiritIt is the Holy Spirit Who brings us to faith in Christ and who enables us to live the Christian life.  Everyone then, who is a Christian, is united in this – we are dependent on the Holy Spirit sharing with us and, as a consequence, we need to share the things of the Spirit with each other. 

Both the gifts and the fruit of the Spirit are given to us for sharing. Thus Paul wrote to the Philippians, ‘If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship (koinonia) with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion …’(Philippians 2:1). This participation of the generous and gracious influence of the Holy Spirit on our lives should enable us to such lives that the unbelieving world will take notice of and want to have!

6. Sharing in the life of ChristJohn wrote, ‘And our koinonia is with … Jesus Christ’ (1John 1:3). What does that mean? In Philippians Paul made an unusual statement about koinonia.  He wrote that‘I want to know Christ and the power of his resurrection and the fellowship (koinonia) of sharing in his sufferings, becoming like him in his death’  (Philippians 3:10). 

Sharing in the life of Christ is two-fold.  First, it means the sharing of all the benefits that Christ has secured for us – ‘I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share (koinonia)’ (Jude 3); ‘… one who also will share (koinonia) in the glory to be revealed …’  (1 Peter 5:1); ‘… you may participate (koinonia) in the divine nature …’ (2 Peter 1:4).   These and many more are the benefits that we have through Christ.

But it also means ‘the (koinonia) of his sufferings’ (Philippians 3:10). In Greek there is just one word for the phrase rendered ‘fellowship of the sharing’ – koinonia.  (The NIV unnecessarily multiplies the words).

What did Paul mean when he wrote, ‘I want to know Christ and … the fellowship of his suffering?’ He meant that in fully identifying with Jesus, in truly getting to know him, one must be willing to take the good with the bad! To know the koinonia of his suffering does not, of course, mean that we choose to be crucified as he was.  But it does mean that we are willing to suffer and be rejected and even to die for him. This is a far cry from the prosperity gospel that appeals to many Christians today! 

A.W. Tozer scornfully comments, ‘We want to be saved but we insist that Christ do all the dying. No cross for us, no dethronement, no dying.’ But to know Christ means that we also take on board his cross.

7. Sharing in a unique relationship with God
We began the last segment with a part of a quote from 1John 1:3. The full quote is, ‘…our fellowship (koinonia) is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ. We have considered what fellowship with the Son involves. But what does having fellowship with the Father mean?

First of all it means something amazing – that we are able to have a close relationship with Almighty God, the Creator of the world! But that relationship is not for everyone; it is conditional.  In verse 1 John 1:6 we find that condition, ‘If we claim to have fellowship (koinonia) with him yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not live by the truth.’

So the condition for experiencing koinonia with God is not to walk in the darkness.’  ‘Walking in darkness’ means living in a way that denies or rejects the moral and spiritual requirements of a life in close relationship with God. The word translated ‘walk’ would be better translated ‘walk about,’ which would refer to deliberately living in sin as a lifestyle, rather than the committing of sins because of our fallen humanity.

John is not arguing for ‘sinless perfection’ because he comments in verse 8 that we are self-deceived if we claim to be without sin.  If we say that we are Christians and yet choose to ‘walk about’ in sin’s darkness, we make a pretence of the profession we make for the condition for koinonia with God is not in place! What a challenge this is. 

The very heart of Christianity!
These then are some of the meanings of this wonderful New Testament word. It is a word which, when rightly understood, gets to the very heart of what it means to be a Christian. 

  • It is so much more than a word to describe a Christian gathering; koinonia is seen in the New Testament as a fundamental requirement for the health and spiritual growth of both the individual Christian and the church.
  • In essence it means that we authentically share the life of Christ with each other.

Fellowship – koinonia has always been vitally important in the life of any church, its development and ongoing growth. Unfortunately the dangers of covid-19 across the world over the past couple of years have not only hindered and curtailed close contact and good fellowship in churches but in our communities in general.

However it is still good to look afresh at the meaning of biblical koinonia and believe for a time of healthy fellowship again in whatever church we relate to. Meantime, it’s a blessing to have facilities such as the postal service for thoughtful letters and cards; phones and emails for encouraging communication; online banking transfer services to share blessings.


Dr Jim McClure, author of several books and Bible study series, welcomes questions from Christians seeking enlightenment on biblical perspectives.

His helpful book, Looking for Answers in a Confusing World, is offered free, all of Dr Jim’s writings are highly recommended – such as Grace Revisited, Looking for Answers in a Confusing World, Overview of the Old and New Testaments, Love, Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage, The Masonic Deception, Word of Life in the Old and New Testaments, Interpreting the Letter of James, and Faith Works – A Commentary on the Letter of James. All are available in electronic version in EPUB, Kindle and PDF formats with hyperlinks and. Link for orders and questions: OnlinerConnect@gmail.com


One comment

  1. An excellent look at and description of this important topic, encouraging and challenging — while our means of assembling together for fellowship with one another in person may have been interrupted, our fellowship with the Lord can be uninterrupted.

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